It is useful
to remember that there are many theories that deal with design and aesthetics.
While each has its own system of dividing the area of the frame and
giving importance to certain areas in relationship to others - none
offer an absolute system of image design that guarantees a perfect
image. When we take photographs or make images we tend to apply
them instinctively. A problem which often arises when framing a subject with a camera is that the subject that we would like to photograph may not fit the desired design proportions. While we can use camera view point or theb focal length of the lens we are using to adjust this, sometimes it is impossible to achieve exactly what you are after. Unlike other graphic arts where this can be adapted, the photographer has to work with the existing subject.. However, knowing something about ways to divide
the frame and how they work allows us to apply them in this intuitive
theories, like the golden mean or golden section date back to the ancient
and other arts were based on base on certain proportions.
1 : 1,618
or The Golden Mean
is an irrational number; its exact description is 1 + (√5 - 1)
equation in which the 1, 2 and √5 appears. This equation
can easily be understood from one of the graphic ways to determine
the ratio. This equation is also often indicated by the Greek
letter φ (phi).
With the Golden Mean, the number 16 is introduced. 1 : φ
is approximately 10 : 16, and 16 attracts gold (the force, not
the metal), which makes sense, this ratio is called the Golden
construction of the golden mean starts again with the square,
as shown in the top graphic of the picture:
the perfect world of their imagination never matched real world, Greek
philosophers argued that the ideals of Truth Justice and Beauty, were the basis of a society. As a means of understanding the nature
of things, an emphasis was placed on logic, mathematics and reason,
and these ideas were applied in the arts. Artist's developed a Greek
idea that to some degree has remained with us today - that beauty could
be achieved through BALANCE, HARMONY, UNITY, and PROPORTION.
mean generates spirals, as can be seen in the diagram at the bottom:
An interesting reference is that the Egyptian
hieroglyph of Aries is a spiral and the god that goes with it is CHNOUM,
the ram-headed god and the Greek counterpart is Ares and PALLAS ATHENE.
This Greek temple
was dedicated to Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, practical
skills, and prudent warfare. She was born, fully armed from
the head of Zeus (Jupiter). She is depicted with the snake on
her shield (Medusa) and was a virgin.
In one of the legends, Athena lent her shield to Perseus, who
used it as a mirror to defeat Medusa. The story tells that the
one who faced Medusa, would turn into stone. Via the mirror,
Medusa could be approached and killed (silver defeating magnetic's).
As the drawings
and inscribed ratio's indicate, the Parthenon is built according
to the Golden mean ratio’s. Only the inner chamber at the back
is of an 1 : √2 ratio.